Now consider this bike’s DHX Hawk 60 permanent magnet synchronous electric motor, which is unusually small and light. Its producer, DHX Machines, is in—surprise!—Braselton, Georgia. Traditional electric motors are large and heavy because they are limited by the heat they generate. The danger of overheating is that the insulating enamel on the motor’s wire windings will be destroyed by high temperature, rendering the motor useless. If that heat could somehow be extracted, they could be made much smaller and lighter. The important innovation here is compact, 3D-printed hollow heat exchangers (each like a thin, narrow card), small enough to be fitted, one in each of the motor’s many stator winding slots and in contact with the heat-generating windings themselves, to carry away their heat via circulating fluid.