The first is for horizontal cylinders stacked atop the gearbox. The next is for pneumatic valve springs and the third for variable valve lift and timing. Okay, Kawasaki’s ZX-RR MotoGP engine had pneumatic valves like all the others. Each company surely has its own patents, but none has put pneumatics on a production bike. Variable lift and timing, too? Google “BMW Valvetronic with Double Vanos” to get an idea how ambitious this would be—lots of extra levers between cam and valve finger, plus a lift-shifting cam positioned by a stepper motor, allowing variable valve lift to function as the engine’s throttle. Plus, cam phasers. This requires us to believe that Kawasaki, the smallest Japanese manufacturer, has financed a giant, risky project in a time of drastically reduced sales. And solved problems that have kept BMW Valvetronic from operating efficiently above 6000 rpm.